Data structures

Task is like task_struct.

type Task struct {
	p platform.Context `state:"nosave"`
	k *Kernel
	tc TaskContext

TaskContext contains MemoryManager, MemoryManager is like mm_struct.

MemoryManager contains platform.AddressSpace, which is a interface, implemented by kvm.addressSpace, which contains pagetables.PageTables.

There are two kernel structs, kernel.Kernel and ring0.Kernel. kernel.Kernel contains most of kernel data structures while ring0.kernel only contains PageTables *pagetables.PageTables and globalIDT idt64.

gvisor runtime components

docker run --runtime=runsc -it ubuntu /bin/bash
ps -aux | grep runsc

Will show 4 processes.

wenbo	docker run --runtime=runsc -it ubuntu /bin/bash
root	docker-containerd-shim -namespace moby ...... -containerd-binary ......
root	/usr/local/bin/runsc ...... gofer ......
nobody	/runsc ... boot ...

gvisor architecture

This figure is from the presentation of Dawn Chen and Zhengyu He.

  • docker run --runtime=runsc -it ubuntu /bin/bash is Application process, UID wenbo
  • /usr/local/bin/runsc ...... gofer ...... is Gofer process, UID root
  • /runsc ... boot ... is Sentry, UID nobody. KVM will forward the syscall requests from Application process to this process, which runs the syscall handlers, therefore, it can be regarded as the “kernel process”.


Sentry is the user space kernel process. Its memory maps are

wenbo@wenbo-ThinkPad:~/gitrepo/$ sudo cat /proc/20284/maps
00400000-00a82000 r-xp 00000000 08:05 399683     /tmp/runsc-sandbox-chroot-437342078/runsc
00a82000-012ff000 r--p 00682000 08:05 399683     /tmp/runsc-sandbox-chroot-437342078/runsc
012ff000-01323000 rw-p 00eff000 08:05 399683     /tmp/runsc-sandbox-chroot-437342078/runsc

Seems the sentry code section is not randomized while libraries, stack and heap are randomized, the memory maps match the sections in runsc.

wenbo@wenbo-ThinkPad:~/gitrepo/gvisor$ readelf -S bazel-bin/runsc/linux_amd64_pure_stripped/runsc
Section Headers:
  [Nr] Name              Type             Address           Offset
       Size              EntSize          Flags  Link  Info  Align
  [ 0]                   NULL             0000000000000000  00000000
       0000000000000000  0000000000000000           0     0     0
  [ 1] .text             PROGBITS         0000000000401000  00001000
       0000000000680fe8  0000000000000000  AX       0     0     16
  [ 2] .rodata           PROGBITS         0000000000a82000  00682000
       00000000002c0c34  0000000000000000   A       0     0     32
  [ 8] .noptrdata        PROGBITS         00000000012ff000  00eff000
       0000000000017fa8  0000000000000000  WA       0     0     32

From log, we know currently sentry allows 55 syscalls to the host kernel, no open or socket syscalls, also mentioned in Introducing gVisor.

//log file is runsc.log.20190101-213530.827234.boot

Installing seccomp filters for 55 syscalls.

System calls

For Linux kernel, Anatomy of a system call, part 1 gives a good overview of how syscall is handled in kernel. MSR_LSTAR is a Model-Specific Registers, used to hold “Target RIP for the called procedure when SYSCALL is executed in 64-bit mode”, details in Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual Volume 4: Model-Specific Registers Table 2-2. On the latest kernel v4.20, syscall_init sets MSR_LSTAR to be entry_SYSCALL_64, which will jump to syscall according to the syscall number at do_syscall_64.

For gvisor, from How gvisor trap to syscall handler in kvm platform, “On the KVM platform, system call interception works much like a normal OS. When running in guest mode, the platform sets MSR_LSTAR to a system call handler sysenter, which is invoked whenever an application (or the sentry itself) executes a SYSCALL instruction.”

SyscallTable is a struct. All the implemented syscalls are listed in var AMD64.


All copy to/from/in user functions are in type IO interface

CopyStringIn will only check overflows in AddLength, seems no user/kernel addr limit checking, need double check

Memory Map

pkg/sentry/platform/ring0/defs.go defines UserspaceSize, MaximumUserAddress and KernelStartAddress, their values are:

log.Warningf("UserspaceSize %v MaximumUserAddress %v KernelStartAddress %v", 
    ring0.UserspaceSize, ring0.MaximumUserAddress, ring0.KernelStartAddress)

VirtualAddressBits	= 48
UserspaceSize		= 0x8000 0000 0000
MaximumUserAddress	= 0x7FFF FFFF F000
KernelStartAddress	= 0xFFFF 8000 0000 0000

Consistent with Linux kernel memory map with 4-level page tables

For page table, the same page table mapped both kernel and user memory range in applyPhysicalRegions.

Kernel setup

There are two kernel structs, kernel.Kernel and ring0.Kernel. kernel.Kernel contains most of kernel data structures while ring0.kernel only contains PageTables *pagetables.PageTables and globalIDT idt64. As shown in the following figure, loader.go will create a VM and setup kernel.Kernel, while the KVM will setup ring0.Kernel. Figure source is on plantuml.

kernel setup

What’s the different between ring0.Kernel and kernel.Kernel

What’s the relation between kernel and machine

When machine, ring0.Kernel and kernel.Kernel will be called

Security concerns

  • Sentry uses unsafe packages.
  • Even Golang claimed to be a memory safe program language, but Golang data races to break memory safety.
  • Gvisor thinks 300+ syscalls are not secure, but gvisor still allows 55 syscalls to host kernel.
  • Zhengyu He, gvisor’s founder, mentioned that syscall socket and open have been exploited by most number of CVEs, but how to make sure that the remainning 55 syscalls are not exploited by CVEs.